# What's New - 2020

**Quantum Computers Will Speed Up the Internet’s Most Important Algorithm**

IEEE Spectrum - December 2020

*Fast Fourier transforms provide a sandbox for practical quantum computing*

Researchers are exploring how quantum computing can help run the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, used in practically every data-processing application, more efficiently.

**Photonic Quantum Computer Displays "Supremacy" Over Supercomputers**

IEEE Spectrum - December 2020

*A milestone Chinese demonstration with photonic quantum computing comes just a year after Google's quantum advantage claim*

Research team at University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei achieves second known demonstration of quantum computational advantage, also known as quantum supremacy, using intricately engineered light-based setup consisting of lasers and nonlinear crystals.

**Quantum Dot Paint Could Make Airframe Inspection Quick and Easy**

IEEE Spectrum - November 2020

*The paint, when scanned with ultraviolet light, can quickly reveal strains on the surface underneath*

A new paint consisting of quantum dots suspended within a clear polymer is in development which can be used to gauge strain on surfaces by analyzing light emitted by the paint.

**Quantum Memory Milestone Boosts Quantum Internet Future**

IEEE Spectrum - November 2020

*Record efficiency in storing and retrieving quantum entanglement paves the way for connecting quantum internet nodes*

Recent demonstration of quantum memory storage and retrieval at Sorbonne University has achieved a new benchmark of 85-90 percent. This is part of an effort by the Quantum Internet Alliance to develop technologies for a quantum communications enabled network.

**This Executive Director Is Leading Verizon Into the Future Through Quantum Computing**

IEEE Spectrum - November 2020

*Other emerging technologies the company is working on include improving GPS and drone navigation*

Jean McManus, IEEE member and executive director of emerging technologies with Verizon's technology and product development group, is working on quantum key distribution -- a new encryption method that uses photon properties to protect subscriber data.

**Rapid Scale-Up of Commercial Ion-Trap Quantum Computers**

IEEE Spectrum - November 2020

*Honeywell releases 10-qubit commercial system, IonQ claims 32-qubit beta*

Honeywell Quantum Solutions recently released its first commercial quantum computer, a system based on trapped ions comprising 10 qubits, along with a roadmap that will lead to much more powerful quantum computers. Separately, Maryland-based startup IonQ, unveiled a 32-qubit ion computer last month. Both companies measure their systems’ abilities using a value called quantum volume.

**Intel Creating Cryptographic Codes That Quantum Computers Can't Crack**

IEEE Spectrum - October 2020

*Intel researchers developed a hardware accelerator that helps IoT devices use post-quantum cryptography*

Intel has been working in cooperation with several other companies to develop Bit-flipping Key Encapsulation (BIKE) as a possible quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithm among the many being currently evaluated by NIST.

**Measuring Progress in the 'Noisy' Era of Quantum Computing**

IEEE Spectrum - October 2020

*IBM's concept of quantum volume tries to measure quantum computing progress in ways beyond counting qubits*

The concept of quantum volume, proposed by IBM researchers, is intended to be a more reliable measure of quantum computing's progress during this era where heat, electromagnetic sources, and other "noise" remains a limiting factor for quantum computers.

**IEEE Experts Weigh Social Implications of Emerging Technologies in Future Pandemics**

IEEE Spectrum - October 2020

*The technologies include big data, blockchain, 5G, and drones*

Emerging technologies can help societies during global pandemics, but deployment and implementation must be carefully guided. In this article, thought leaders from IEEE Future Directions initiatives on Blockchain, Brain, Digital Reality, and Future Networks explore the societal aspects of utilizing emerging technologies to secure health and economic systems against future pandemics.

**First Photonic Quantum Computer on the Cloud**

IEEE Spectrum - September 2020

*Toronto-based Xanadu suggests its system could scale up to millions of qubits*

Recently, Toronto-based quantum computing startup Xanadu has, for the first time, made a photonic quantum computer publicly available over the cloud. Unlike quantum computers that rely on qubits based on superconducting circuits or trapped ions which demand frigid temperatures, quantum computers that rely on qubits based on photons can, in principle, operate at room temperature. Xanadu anticipates they can roughly double the number of qubits in their cloud systems every six months.

**What Intel Is Planning for the Future of Quantum Computing: Hot Qubits, Cold Control Chips, and Rapid Testing**

IEEE Spectrum - August 2020

*Director of quantum hardware, Jim Clarke explains the company's path toward "quantum practicality"*

In this interview, *IEEE Spectrum* speaks with Intel's director of quantum hardware, Jim Clarke, who shares his thoughts on quantum technologies and why silicon spin qubits show promise in leading to a useful quantum computer.

**Building a Quantum Computing Workforce from the Ground Up**

IEEE Spectrum - July 2020

*Industry and academia are joining forces to establish a work force that meet the demands of a burgeoning field of quantum computing*

Already one of the fast-growing STEM fields, the emerging area of quantum computing presents a unique demand for scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and developers to establish the future quantum work force.

**Tiny Satellites Could Distribute Quantum Keys**

IEEE Spectrum - June 2020

*CubeSat design packs entangled photon generator into small space*

Unbreakable quantum keys that use the laws of physics to protect their secrets could soon be transmitted from orbiting devices that a person could lift with one hand.

**Honeywell Claims It Has Most Powerful Quantum Computer**

IEEE Spectrum - June 2020

*6-qubit ion trap system hits a critical benchmark*

Honeywell's quantum computer has reached a new benchmark: a quantum volume of 64. While quantum volume is not a universally accepted benchmark, Tony Uttley, president of Honeywell Quantum Solutions, believes it’s the best measure so far as it takes into account more than just the number of physical qubits.

**Quantum Satellite Links Extend More Than 1,000 Kilometers**

IEEE Spectrum - June 2020

*New system one step closer to practical quantum cryptography*

Researchers from China have achieved their goal of entanglement-based quantum cryptography by using a satellite that connected two ground stations more than 1,000 kilometers apart with data rates of 0.12 bits per second.

**Quantum Dots Shift Sunlight's Spectrum to Speed Plant Growth**

IEEE Spectrum - June 2020

*Quantum dots, the nanoparticles that improve color reproduction in TV displays, are migrating from the TV to the farm*

Similar to the way quantum dots shift light to create a better picture in QD TVs, the same approach can be used to make plants grow faster, because plants, like LCD filters, are tuned to certain colors of light.

**Novel Error Correction Code Opens a New Approach to Universal Quantum Computing**

IEEE Spectrum - June 2020

*A British scientist working in Australia has found a way to apply a three-dimensional code to a two-dimensional framework for quantum error correcting*

A new approach to quantum error correcting may help address the question that government agencies, universities, and tech companies are asking: How can quantum computers reach their vast potential when they are still unable to consistently produce results that are reliable and free of errors?

**How Many Qubits Are Needed For Quantum Supremacy?**

IEEE Spectrum - May 2020

*Whether Google achieved quantum supremacy depends on perspective*

As researchers continue to analyze quantum computing circuits, operations, and techniques, it remains controversial how many qubits are needed to achieve quantum supremacy over classical computers.

**Q&A: Architect of New “Inspire”; Quantum-Computing Platform on Spin Qubits and Programming Quantum Chips**

IEEE Spectrum - April 2020

*Richard Versluis, the system architect, describes Europe’s first public-access quantum-computing platform*

In this interview, Richard Versluis, system architect at QuTech in the Netherlands, talks about Europe’s first public-access quantum-computing platform named Inspire, as well as the challenges of building practical quantum computers.

**Scientists Explore Underwater Quantum Links for Submarines**

IEEE Spectrum - April 2020

*New tests show that such links can be reliably established in turbulent waters at greater distances than previously reported*

Researchers have found that underwater quantum links are possible across 30 meters (100 feet) of turbulent water. Such findings could lead to secure quantum communications between submarines and surface vessels, and with other subs, aircraft, or even satellites.

**Quantum Computing Milestone: Researchers Compute With ‘Hot’ Silicon Qubits**

IEEE Spectrum - April 2020

*Two teams report silicon spin qubit devices that operate at temperatures above 1 Kelvin*

Today, qubits must be kept inside large dilution refrigerators at temperatures hovering just above absolute zero while electronics that control the qubits must remain separate due to the heat they produce. However, two research groups now say they've independently built quantum devices that can operate at temperatures above 1 Kelvin.

**Novel Annealing Processor Is the Best Ever at Solving Combinatorial Optimization Problems**

IEEE Spectrum - April 2020

*Tokyo Tech engineers say their CMOS processor bests current technologies in solving the traveling salesman conundrum and other complex puzzles*

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Hitachi, Hokkaido University, and the University of Tokyo have engineered a new advanced annealer architecture dubbed STATICA that introduces parallel spin copies and utilizes pre-computed results to reduce computation.

**Can Quantum Computers Help Us Respond to the Coronavirus?**

IEEE Spectrum - April 2020

*D-Wave Systems gave free access to its cloud quantum computing service to COVID-19 researchers—here's what they plan to do with it*

D-Wave has offered free access to its quantum computers for researchers working on solving problems associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including those working toward vaccines, therapies, supply distribution, and more.

**D-Wave makes its quantum computers free to anyone working on the coronavirus crisis**

VentureBeat - March 2020

They are hoping free access to quantum processing resources & quantum expertise will help uncover solutions to the COVID-19 crisis.

**Here’s a Blueprint for a Practical Quantum Computer**

IEEE Spectrum - March 2020

*Constructing a universal quantum computer will be hard but not impossible*

Building and controlling a quantum computer will be quite the engineering challenge, however, perhaps the biggest difficulty lies in making sure that the basic set of control signals do what they should do and that the qubits behave as expected.

**Honeywell’s Ion Trap Quantum Computer Makes Big Leap**

IEEE Spectrum - March 2020

*Superior qubits key to rapid increase in power*

Honeywell is on track to release a quantum computer that utilizes ion qubits -- ions trapped in an electromagnetic field at the center of a chip where they act as qubits.

**Move Over, CMOS: Here Come Snapshots by Quantum Dots**

IEEE Spectrum - February 2020

*The CMOS image sensor has dominated cameras for nearly 20 years, but quantum dots may take its place*

A revolution in imaging technology brought about by the quantum dot, a nanometer-size particle of semiconductor material, offers advantages over traditional CMOS image sensors, but several obstacles impede commercialization.

**New Cryptography Method Promising Perfect Secrecy Is Met With Skepticism**

IEEE Spectrum - February 2020

*An international team claims its perfect secrecy cryptography is made unbreakable by physics*

New research claims to demonstrate a "perfect secrecy cryptography" system, the strongest security notion in cryptography, that can remain secure even against future quantum computers.

**New Math Makes Scientists More Certain About Quantum Uncertainties**

IEEE Spectrum - February 2020

*New statistical calculations suggest the fundamental quantum limits of some sensitive measurements may have been off by a factor of pi*

Physicist Wojciech Górecki of the University of Warsaw in Poland addresses Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and how limits in measuring some quantities up to the ultimate quantum sensitivity may be larger than expected.

**Extending Quantum Entanglement Across Town**

IEEE Spectrum - February 2020

*Does German researchers' ability to transmit quantum bits 20 km put us on the road toward a practical quantum repeater?*

In a new experiment by researchers at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany, the distance quantum information can travel from stationary quantum memory to optical telecom pulse has been extended some twenty kilometers, serving as a milestone on the road toward a so-called quantum repeater.

**Quantum Entanglement Meets Superconductivity in Novel Experiment**

IEEE Spectrum - January 2020

*A recent experiment finds an unlikely connection between two previously distinct quantum technologies*

An experiment in a Rice University laboratory finds a connection between quantum entanglement and quantum criticality, two essential but previously distinct technologies, based on observations of a thin film of metal fabricated at Vienna University of Technology.

**Mixing Quantum States Boosts Fiber Communications**

IEEE Spectrum - January 2020

*A new method could increase transmission of secure data*

Researchers have developed a new technique to allow long-distance transmission of quantum information by combining different quantum properties on the same photons. Now it’s up to researchers to develop communications protocols that can take advantage of this new technique.

**4 Ways to Make Bigger Quantum Computers**

IEEE Spectrum - January 2020

*Cryochips by Intel, Seeqc, and others could help quantum computers scale*

At the 2019 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) in San Francisco, California, USA, engineers unveiled some potential solutions to address the need for future ultralow-power control chips that can operate inside cryogenic enclosures.

**Building a Quantum Computer From Off-the-Shelf Parts**

IEEE Spectrum - January 2020

*University of Chicago researchers develop stable and possibly scalable qubits by creating defects in commercial silicon wafers*

A group of researchers at University of Chicago are pioneering a new technique for fabricating quantum bits by creating and manipulating small defects in commercially available silicon carbide wafers. The technique involves using an electron beam to create a deficiency in the wafer which behaves as a single electron spin. These electron structures can then be harnessed as possible quantum bits for quantum computation and communications.

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